What is Open Science?
Open Science (OS) is a new approach to how scientific research is conducted and organized, based on cooperation and new ways of disseminating knowledge using digital technologies and new collaborative tools. This approach is driven by the exponential growth of information and the availability of digital technologies, by the globalization of the community of scientists as well as by the growing demand from society to find solutions to the great challenges of our time.
The components of Open Science are:
1) Open scientific content from the public research sectorOP
2) E-Infrastructures open to public and private research
3) Open scientific culture
Open Science in EU
Open Science is one of the 3 strategic priorities of the European Commission, as stated by the Commissioner Moedas: Open Science, Open Innovation, Open to the World. A vision for Europe. In 2015, the European Commission identified 5 areas of potential policy action to support the development of Open Science in Europe. Potential interventions are based on the assumption that OS will ultimately lead to better science by increasing credibility (addressing scientific integrity), trust (better and more transparent data verification), efficiency (avoidance of overlapping resources) and responsiveness to societal challenges.
The 5 potential areas of action include:
1) Fostering and stimulating Open Science by promoting it in educational programs, promoting good practices and increasing the contribution of knowledge producers to a more open environment (citizen science);
2) Removing barriers to Open Science: this involves, among other things, the analysis of research careers, in order to create the incentives and rewards for involvement in OS;
3) Mainstreaming Open Access to research results (research data and scientific publications);
4) Development of research infrastructures to improve data hosting, access and governance, including the development of a common framework for research data and the creation of the European Open Science Cloud;
5) Embedding Open Science in society, as a socio-economic promoter through which science becomes more receptive to societal and economic expectations.
Other major actions undertaken by the EU to implement Open Science include:
For more information on recent developments in Open Science at EU level, visit the EC Open Science webpage
Open Science in Moldova
The need to promote Open Science (OS) in the Republic of Moldova is determined by:
1) The transition to OS is an official policy of the European Union (EU) and the Republic of Moldova has declared its intention to integrate into the European Research Area (ERA).
2) The OS concept radically changes the way research is done and lack of its implementation in the Republic of Moldova will make national science non-competitive.
3) The legislation of the Republic of Moldova provides for implementation of certain OS elements.
At present, a national strategy or policy recommendations for Open Science promotion and implementation are needed, because the separate actions undertaken are not concerted.